Lynchburg Glass Works
The Story of Lynchburg Glass,
Lynchburg Glass Works, 1919-1922
Lynchburg Glass Corporation, 1923-1925 (1928)
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(Copyright © 2018, Dennis Bratcher).
[This page is constantly being updated with new information as material is added from newspaper accounts and other records. As a result, the footnotes and documentation are not yet complete and are not properly numbered.]
The story of Lynchburg Glass is the story of two glass companies, The Lynchburg Glass Works and its successor The Lynchburg Glass Corporation. It is a short story, covering less than ten years. Yet in that short span of time there is enough drama, intrigue, and unanswered questions to make for a good suspense yarn.
The Lynchburg Glass companies began as promising enterprises. Both versions of the company were largely funded by local investors, supported by the leading businessmen of the city through the Chamber of Commerce, well equipped, with good leadership and an experienced labor force making and selling products in demand in a growing market. Yet in spite of all this, both incarnations of the company struggled to show a profit. -1- Even with relatively modern equipment and skilled workers, the quality of the ware was inconsistent, sometimes resulting in the rejection of entire production runs. -2- Both plants were also plagued by labor problems and shortage of materials, as well as accusations of bad management decisions.
In addition to those factors accounts told later by some of the people involved suggest one additional factor. While we have no solid evidence, according to these reports neither of the Lynchburg companies ever discovered a serious flaw in the plant itself that may have doomed the enterprise before it ever melted its first batch of glass. Only as the failed plant was demolished years later was the culprit revealed. -3- But that’s the end of the story.
Lynchburg Glass Works, 1918-1922
Lynchburg Glass Works, Inc., came into existence on February 14, 1918 with the filing of incorporation papers with the State of Virginia. N. [Nathan] D. Eller was listed as president and D. B. Ryland, secretary. Initial maximum capital stock was $300,000, coming primarily from local investors. -4-
However, the story of Lynchburg Glass actually began the previous year. Lynchburg was a thriving industrial and commercial center at the beginning of the 20th century. The Lynchburg Chamber of Commerce took an active role in promoting the city and in attracting new business and industry. Through various subsidiaries, the Chamber even organized its own companies and industrial projects. Lynchburg Glass Works would be one of those Chamber of Commerce companies.
In May of 1917, Dawson Brothers Manufacturing, a food processing and packing business, in response to incentives offered by the Chamber of Commerce established a plant in Lynchburg along the eastern portion of Hudson street (see below, Photo 1). This company used glass containers to package their food products and needed between 200 and 300 train car loads of glass bottles, jars, and containers each year. D. B. Ryland, owner of D. B. Ryland & Co. Jewelry and the business manager for the Chamber, suggested to the Chamber's Board of Directors that they explore the possibility of establishing a glass plant in Lynchburg to provide the containers for Dawson Brothers. -5- This concept of "insourcing" had helped make Lynchburg a prosperous industrial center.
Photo 1: The Dawson Brothers Manufacturing facilities, which were located to the east of the Lynchburg plant. The railroad siding also served the Lynchburg Glass plant, to the left of this photo. Remnants of the original siding and bridge are visible in the aerial photos below (photos 2 and 6).
The Board instructed Mr. Ryland to begin investigating the matter and gathering information about the feasibility of building a glass plant. An initial report was presented to the Chamber in July, 1917. The Chamber and its Board of Directors decided to pursue the matter further by consulting experts in glass plant construction and glass manufacturing. Plant engineers and experienced glass producers were brought to Lynchburg for consultation. In August, the Chamber decided that while such a plant would be profitable and contribute to the industrial development of the city, the construction costs would be higher than first estimated. In view of such cost, as well as "the unfortunate freight situation," it was decided not to go forward with the project. -6-
However, the Chamber did not abandon the idea completely. By November, 1917, the Chamber received information that construction costs had declined considerably in the previous past three months. Based on more favorable conditions, the Chamber decided to send D. B. Ryland to Philadelphia to continue investigating the possibility of establishing a glass works. Accompanying Mr. Ryland to Philadelphia was N. D. Eller, who had 15 years of management experience with Piedmont [Flour] Mills of Lynchburg. From January 2-5, 1918, the two men visited several glass plants to gather information. The Chamber reported that "Mr. Eller was so favorably impressed with results obtained that he proposed to take a large block of stock in the enterprise if established." Mr. Eller also offered to serve as president of the new company. -7-
The decision was made to proceed with the organization of the glass works. Stock was offered and "persistent" efforts were made by the Chamber to subscribe the stock. According to a newspaper report, within three weeks, by February 16, 1918, all $250,000 of the stock was subscribed. There was so much enthusiasm for the project that the common stock was oversubscribed. Most of the preferred stock was subscribed by leading businessmen of the city and members of the Chamber. -8- However, a later list of stockholders with the actual number of shares owned shows 3,002 shares at $40 a share for a total investment of $120,080. -9- Without additional financial records it is uncertain the actual capital investment with which the company began. Later opinion was that the company was not adequately financed. -10-
In the Chamber's previous ventures in organizing industries, there had been complaints that preferred stock was not made available to small investors. At the February 16, 1918 meeting the Chamber of Commerce discussed these complaints and proposed a preemptive solution. Four members of the Board of Directors committed to $5,000 of preferred stock with the goal of making it available to small investors. If this stock were not subscribed, these members would take the stock themselves as an investment. -11-
These complaints, significant enough to be reported in Lynchburg's newspaper The Lynchburg News and to evoke a defensive solution by the Chamber, may hint at some animosity in the larger community toward the business activity of the Chamber. There may have been some perception of preferential treatment. At this point there is no further substantial evidence of such disgruntlement. Yet, there is evidence from historians and economists that the city of Lynchburg was economically dominated through the first half of the twentieth century by a small group of wealthy businessmen, a situation that would have long term effects. -12-
It was only two days before the completion of the stock offering, on February 14, 1918, that the incorporation papers for Lynchburg Glass Works were filed. Initial projections were that the plant would operate 11 months of the year and that it would employ "a large number of skilled operatives" earning $12 a day. The payroll was estimated at $4,000 per week. -13- While there is no definitive proof, there is some evidence that the corporate logo was an L within an oval. -13a-
The plant was to be built along Hudson street on property belonging to the Lynchburg Industrial Development Corporation, a subsidiary of the Chamber of Commerce. -14- This site would be adjacent to the recently built Dawson Brothers Manufacturing food processing plant. -15-
Toward the end of February the Chamber applied the "finishing touches" to the organization of Lynchburg Glass Works. On February 20, 1918, a stockholders' meeting in the Chamber of Commerce elected officers and a Board of Directors for the company. N. D. Eller was elected President and Treasurer, Walker Pettyjohn Vice-President, and D. B. Ryland Secretary. The Board of Directors included, R. T. Watts, Jr., O. B. Barker, W. J. D. Bell, Richard Hancock, C. N. Hancock, Walker Pettyjohn, N. D. Eller, and A. W. Conway. -16-
After this meeting, Mr. Eller and other officials met with A. W. Conway, who was the former president and general manager of the Piedmont Glass Company of Roanoake, Va. -16a- As "an experienced glass manufacturer" he would serve as the general superintendent of the company. They discussed plans for building and operating the plant. While no schedule was set, the hope was to have the plant in operation by September 1 or early in the Fall of 1918. -17-
Construction of the glass factory began the last week of June, 1918. The plant was designed by T. Cox and Sons of Bridgeton, NJ, a well established center of glass making. They also supervised at least the initial construction of the plant. -18- This company also owned a substantial portion of stock in the new company (100 shares, $4,000), although it is unknown whether this was an investment or a partial payment for building the plant. -19- The local contractor in Lynchburg was John P. Pettyjohn and Company with the electrical work subcontracted to Clifton Whitmore of Lynchburg. B. O. Beckett, who would later serve as general manager of the company, was the construction supervisor. -20- An amended incorporation application filed on December 16, 1918 increased the capital stock to $450,000. -21- This was for the purpose of enlarging the plant. Projected production was three carloads of food containers per day. -21a-
By January of 1919, the glass plant was nearing completion. -22- Construction had been delayed by difficulty in obtaining building materials. However, The Lynchburg News reported on January 5, 1919, that the plant was expected to go into operation within 30 days. -23- The plant cost $315,000 to build and, according to W. H. Loyd, "was considered a model plant in every particular for the manufacture of food containers and bottles." -24-
The factory complex was located at the intersection of Ann and Hudson streets in Lynchburg, Va., along Hudson Street (Ann Street ended at Hudson Street). -25- Entry into the plant was from an extension of Miller Street, now closed south of the Lynchburg Expressway.
Photo 2: An present-day satellite view of the Lynchburg plant site, now occupied by an industrial complex. The Lynchburg plant buildings occupied the area approximately where the larger tan-roofed building now sits (the first photo below, Photo 3, was taken approximately from the X above on Hudson Street). Dawson Brothers Manufacturing, the main customer for Lynchburg Glass Works' bottles and jars, occupied the remainder of the site to the southeast (roughly where the white roofed rectangular building now sits). Hudson Street runs diagonally across the center of the photo. Ann Street originally ended at Hudson at the upper left; in 1999 the southern portion of Ann Street was closed to build access roads for the nearby Lynchburg Expressway. The industrial access road below the present buildings, Robins Road, was built with the newer buildings and was not present in the 1920s. The center part of Robins Road in the photo is approximately where the railroad siding for the plant ran. The remains of the original Southern Railroad siding turnout are visible crossing the road at bottom right (see detail below).
Lynchburg was a transportation hub served by three major railroads that linked the industrial north with the fast growing southeast and midwest with access to points west. The Southern Railway, which provided direct access into the plant by a siding, connected Washington, D.C. to Atlanta, Ga. The Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad connected Newport News to Cincinnati, Ohio, and the Norfolk and Western Railroad connected Norfolk, Va. to Toledo, Ohio. -26-
The location provided easy access to shipping points throughout the USA, as well as easy access to raw material and labor.
Lynchburg is very near the Norfolk & Western and Chesapeake & Ohio coal fields which produce the finest gas coal known. One of the largest plants producing Soda Ash is within 150 miles of Lynchburg. The labor situation in Lynchburg is good. There is an abundance of intelligent labor both colored and white, male and female. -27-
A local supply of high quality sand was located within twelve miles of the plant. These factors, combined with "a market for the finished product virtually in the 'back yard' of the plant" fostered a confident optimism about its success. -28-
A notice in the trade journal The Glassworker described the intended products as well as some of the equipment:
The plant of the Lynchburg Glass Works, Inc., of this city, is now under construction. Prescription, packers, panels, pickles, chows, jellies, flint and green bottles will be made. There will be two continuous tanks employed with a total of 16 ringholes. There will be no moldmaking shop. Work will be done by hand and semi-automatic machines, one Miller and three Cox machines being employed. -29-
B. O. Beckett, who had supervised the entire construction of the plant, now served as General Manager. Earl Ross served as the factory superintendent. -30-
The plant was completed in late February or early March of 1919. It was situated on a little over five acres (5.072, less easements for a net land area of 4.862 acres) and comprised nine buildings and sheds. Most of the information we have about the plant comes from a description of the plant in a sales brochure from mid 1922, after the power house was rebuilt following a fire in late August, 1921. While these buildings were given names in the brochures, some served more than one purpose. -31- The basic configuration of the plant can be determined from the few existing photos of the plant as well as existing survey plats and Sanborn insurance maps (for more information and layout of the plant site, see Site Photos).
Photo 3: The Lynchburg Glass plant as it appeared in early 1919 viewed from Hudson Street looking southwest (see aerial photo above).-32-
Photo 4: An aerial view of the Lynchburg Glass plant around 1921, looking slightly northwest. At the lower right are two storage and loading sheds (#8) with two boxcars spotted on the tracks nearby. The numbers identify buildings in the descriptions below. (see Site Photos)
Photo 5: The plant as it appeared in late 1922. View is from the northwest corner near the intersection of Ann and Hudson streets looking slightly southeast. The pole in left foreground holds a fire alarm call box. The sign on the office building has been edited in the photo for use in a later brochure (click on image to open larger photo)
The Main Building was 198 by 100 feet, composed of two sections. One section (#1 in Photo 4 above) was approximately 100 by 100 feet, two stories, and was constructed with a clerestory roof in the center with tilt-opening windows for ventilation. The basement was constructed with walls, floor, and ceiling of reinforced concrete. The main level was made of wood with a concrete floor. This building held two tanks and furnaces for making glass. There were concrete reinforcements around and between the furnaces, as well as between the furnaces and annealing lehrs. The tanks had a daily capacity of 22 and 28 tons respectively (Lynchburg Glass Corporation would later increase this to 35 and 45 tons). They were originally continuous gas fired and could each feed eight rings, or deposit points for extracting glass to forming machines. The gas to run these furnaces was produced on-site from four Cox Gas Producers located nearby in the Producer House. -33-
The molding presses and automatic bottle machines were located in this building. There is no information on which machines were installed and operating at any given time or exactly where they were located in the building. They would have been located somewhere between the furnaces and the annealing lehrs.
The second lower roofed section of this building (#2 above) was also approximately 100 by 98 feet with a basement. The main floor held the annealing lehrs to slowly cool and “cure” the finished glassware after it came from the forming machines. These were located about 30 feet from the furnace. -34- There were five lehrs, arranged in two banks of three and two (see the internal building layout in Site Photos). They were each 65 feet long and seven feet wide with oil fired burners to keep the glass from cooling too quickly. There was also space for sorting and packing products as they came out of the lehrs. The Machine Shop for repairing and later manufacturing molds and the Blacksmith Shop for maintaining equipment were located in the basement of this building. The basement was also used for general storage. -35-
The Batch House (#3) was 55 by 45 feet, two stories, located close to the main building at the rear of the glass tanks and furnaces. It contained three large two story high bins for storing soda ash, lime, and sand, the primary ingredients of glass. An elevated trestle of the Southern Railroad ran alongside this building (See Photo 4 above) to allow material to be unloaded directly to the top of the storage bins. The ingredients were measured and weighed on the first floor then conveyed to an electric powered Beckwith Machinery Company automatic batch mixer on the second floor, which in turn fed the mixed raw material to the furnaces.
Photo 6: Aerial view of the remains of the original railroad siding that served the Lynchburg plant,
which was located above and to the left of the photo. This siding remnant is all that remains of the Lynchburg facility (2013).
The Power House (#4) was a 50 by 37 feet frame building. We do not know how it was originally constructed, but after the August, 1921 fire it was rebuilt with iron siding and roof. It was located near the Batch House and Main Building near the railroad trestle. It housed two 66 inch by 18 feet horizontal return tubular boilers with water feed pump and water heater. While not specifically stated in the records, these were probably oil fired boilers. The generated steam was used by the steam powered machinery as well as by the Gas Producer. Also in this building were two steam-driven duplex air compressors, one 12x14x12 and one 14x16x14, along with air storage and regulator tanks and pumps. The compressed air would be used by the forming machines in making bottles and later fruit jars.
The Producer House (#5) was located near the Power House. It was 64 by 37 feet, two story brick with an iron roof. The first floor housed four Cox No. 11 Gas Producers. These machines used coal to produce fuel gas that was used to fire the furnaces. -36- The second floor was reinforced with concrete and was in line with the coal dump and top of the producers.
The two story Box Shop (#6) was 38 by 30 feet, The first floor was used for lumber storage. -36a- The second floor housed electric powered machinery and saws to manufacture boxes, shipping crates, and cases for finished products. It was located to the rear of the main building near the area where ware was removed from the lehrs, sorted, and packed. The second floor was connected to the main building's packing area by an elevated walkway for ease of access.
The Ware Shed or Storage Building (#7) was 80 by 48 feet, used to store finished products before shipping. It was situated close to the rear of the Main Building near the annealing lehrs and packing area “so that finished ware is carted by trucks from packing-room to shed a short distance.”
Two Loading Sheds (#8) approximately 40 by 20 feet were located along the railroad tracks to the southeast of the ware shed. Finished product would have been moved from the ware shed along a dirt and gravel road to these sheds to be loaded onto railroad cars.
The Office Building (#9) was a five room, two story wood frame building. It was located at the front of the site a distance away from the factory, and housed office and record keeping equipment, as well as two iron safes. While we do not know exactly how it was originally equipped, we know that later part of it, presumably the upstairs, served as a living apartment for J. William Gayner. -37-
In addition to the buildings, there was also a twenty-two thousand gallon capacity oil tank, located at the edge of the property behind the Producer and Power Houses. It was filled directly from tank cars. There was also a 15 HP electric generator to power lights. Presumably this was located in the Power House, especially if it was steam powered (which is not stated).
The plant included a variety of molds, presses, bottle blowing machines, and other equipment to produce glassware. These included a W. J. Miller 5-mold jelly glass machine; five Cox semi-automatic bottle blowing machines; a Howard automatic glass feeder; hand glass presses; prescription bottle molds for both hand and semi-automatic machines ranging from 1/2 to 32 ounces; molds for assortments of round, square, panel, and proprietary medicine bottles; and molds for a general line of soda bottles, including the patented Coca-Cola bottle. Some of these molds were made after the plant began production.
The plant went into production on March 11, 1919, soon after its completion. -38- While the plant could operate two eight-ring glass tanks, only one was put into production. The second tank was never used, either by Lynchburg Glass Works or its sucessor the Lynchburg Glass Corporation. -39- Some of the workers at the plant were skilled glassmakers who had worked at other glass factories in New England. On March 24, 1919 a local chapter of the Glass Bottle Blowers' Association was formed, Branch 108. -40- The plant planned to operate three shops at the plant. -40aa-
Unfortunately, at about the same time the Lynchburg plant was getting started, the Dawson Brothers Manufacturing company, potentially the primary customer for Lynchburg's glass production, was in the process of failing. Like the Lynchburg Glass Works, the Chamber of Commerce and its affiliated enterprises had promoted the company. Also like the glass works, it was financed by local investors. However, with some hints of impropriety in the news accounts, the company was put into the hands of receivers during 1919. The property was sold a couple of years later to a company intending to make plows. -40a-
A case of Lynchburg bottles ready for shipment.
Lynchburg Glass Works logo, 1921 letterhead.
There is some indication that the glass plant began operating only part time, or that there was a brief interruption of production in March, 1919. In any case, by the end of March the plant was in full production. -41- They produced mainly medicine and soda bottles. While it is possible that they also produced some food containers none have been found that can be identified with the company. -42-
Lynchburg's medicinal or prescription bottles were cork-topped and had raised graduated content markings on both edges of one side. -43- They were nearly identical to apothecary bottles made by Owens Glass Company and several other manufacturers, except for Lynchburg's distinctive slightly smoky gray, or very lightly yellow or greenish tinted glass. While the company's logo was likely an L within an oval, it was not used on most of Lynchburg Glass Works' ware. -43a- On most items, the company included the simple maker’s mark “Lbg” or "Lbg." in cursive style script on the bottom of the ware (see photos below right; the mark LGW on bottles is not Lynchburg's; see Is It a Lynchburg?). -46- On at least one bottle (1 oz), the logo appears with a backwards "b" reading "Ldg." -43b-
In addition to medicinals, Lynchburg made soft drink bottles for several brands of soda, soda water, and flavored drinks. Most are marked Lbg on the base, heel, or both. Lynchburg Glass Works had obtained a license to make the 1915 patented Coca-Cola "hobbleskirt" bottle, and was among the first of a small group of glass makers to produce the iconic bottle in 1919 and 1920. Most of these Coke bottles have city names on the base. However, they also exist with the Lbg logo on the heel and no lettering on the base, and with Lgb on both the heel and the base with no city. Most occur in a smoky gray glass but a few have been confirmed in a light blue aqua tint. All are fairly scarce and are prized by Coca-Cola collectors because of their unusual color and limited production.
Lynchburg also made bottles for Coca-Cola flavored drinks (see photo right) and Coca-Cola distributed soda water. All of the Lynchburg-made Coca-Cola bottles of both types with cities that I have confirmed are from cities in North Carolina or Virginia. Some have been reported from Culpeper, VA, but I have not confirmed that. -44-
Lynchburg made bottles for the popular Chero-Cola (at right, center photo). These were distributed mostly in southwestern Virginia and the Carolinas, and are more common than the Coke bottles. Only a few have been found with city names. Lynchburg also made the art-deco "checkerboard" Pepsi-Cola bottle, which is quite rare (at right, right photo). -45- This bottle occurs in both the typical smoly grey color and also with a light yellow/amber tint (see photo).
There was an unintended environmental impact of the new plant. In April, 1919, the Lynchburg Health Department instructed farmers of truck gardens near the plant that they could not sell fresh produce raised near the plant. The concern was the danger of tiny particles of glass from the plant settling on fresh vegetables, which then might be ingested. -46a-
On Friday, May 9, 1919, production was briefly interrupted by an impromptu strike by some of the non-union bottle workers. These were mostly "tenders," usually young boys, who assisted the skilled glass blowers. They were protesting working hours, specifically the company's refusal to pay for a full day on Saturday even though the late Saturday shift was only a half-day (the furnace was blocked, or reduced to non-production temperature on Saturday night). The company reported that only about 25 were involved and that most had returned to work by the afternoon. Some later reports were that "quite a number" had quit. -46b- By Monday the plant was back into production with a full work force. The plant could not employ all the boys who had applied for the open positions. -46c-
Initial sales were encouraging and plans were formulated to expand the plant’s capacity. The company sent a representative to the National Bottle Manufacturers’ Association Annual Meeting in June of 1919. -47-
The night of June 20, 1919, Lynchburg's office was wrecked when thieves tried to blow open the company safe in a failed robbery attempt. While the damage was not significant, the safe had to be drilled open to recover its contents. The company kept the week's cash payroll in the safe on Friday night. A former employee who was aware of the practice was arrested. -47a-
In November, 1919, the factory was advertising for a mold maker, presumably to make molds for one of the soda bottles. S. P. Zimmerman now served as Assistant Superintendent in charge of hiring. -48- Lynchburg Glass Works was listed in 1919 annual directories of glass plants as makers of “flint jellies and tumblers and flint and green beers and minerals.” -49- However, it is uncertain whether the company ever actually produced beer and mineral water bottles, or food containers besides sodas and medicinal bottles. -49a-
Production continued into 1920. Sometime during the year, W. H. Loyd replaced D. B. Ryland as secretary of the company. -50- By August of 1920, the company was again advertising for a mold maker at the wage of $42 per week. -51- Lynchburg Glass Works was one of sixty-one glassmakers with representatives at the Annual Meeting of the National Bottle Manufacturers’ Association in Atlantic City in the summer of 1920. -52-
Business was booming in early 1920 and the plant began running three shifts. -53- During that year Lynchburg Glass Works shipped $302,000.00 worth of soda and prescription bottles, almost half of its total four year production. -54- However, toward the end of 1920 business began to take a downward turn. By December the plant was running only two 8-hour shifts with approximately 150 employees. The plant shut down on December 18, 1920, with plans to restart the plant early in January. -54a- It is uncertain what caused the plant to halt production. The earlier failure of the Dawson Manufacturing Company likely contributed to slow sales.
There is no record that the plant reopened in January as planned. It appears that the plant was idle for a period of time at the beginning of the year. In March, 1921, Lynchburg Glass Works had formally announced plans to upgrade and improve the factory by “the installation of new machinery” for “increased production.” -55- The glass works resumed operation on March 14 but was only running one shift with hopes of soon adding a second shift. -56-
Beginning on March 15, the plant was in continuous operation until December 4, 1921, employing just under 100 persons. -57- By July, they had completed installation of the new O’Neill No. 30 automatic bottle blowing machine, which increased automation and productivity (see The O'Neill Bottle Machine). -58-
In July, 1921, Lynchburg Glass Works was again represented at the Annual Meeting of the National Bottle Manufacturer's Association. N. D. Eller also attended the Glass Container Association meeting that summer. -59- During 1921, W. H. Loyd took the additional position as treasurer, sharing that responsibility, at least officially, with N. D. Eller. Lynchburg was still listed as making "Flint jellies, flint and green soft drink and prescriptions." -60-
Late Saturday night, August 27, 1921, a portion of the plant was destroyed by fire. The fire originated in the "boiler room" of the power house and it is likely that the power house and adjacent areas were damaged. -60a- However, the fire was not catastrophic. President N. D. Eller initially estimated the loss to be about $12,000. Immediate plans were made to rebuild the damaged portions of the plant. -61- The plant was out of operation for ten days, but by mid-September the reconstruction was completed. -61a- N. D. Eller reported that the total loss was $10,833. -62- The plant resumed production of small jars and bottles with 175 people on a 24-hour schedule. -63- However, for as yet unknown reasons their license to make the patented Coca-Cola bottle was not renewed and Lynchburg never resumed production of Coca-Cola bottles. -63a-
The company had struggled to make it through 1921. With the loss of the Coca-Cola business, prospects for the coming year did not look good. Overall, sales had been relatively good and the company had actually increased production capacity. -64- Yet by the beginning of December, 1921, only weeks after the rebuilding of fire-damaged parts of the plant was completed, lack of orders from soft drink plants again forced the plant to shut down temporarily. At this time, the plant employed 95 workers. It is not known when the plant went back into production, although the shutdown was expected to last at least through January 1, 1922. -66-
The trade directories of 1922 continue to list Lynchburg Glass Works as makers of “flint jellies, flint and green soft drink and prescriptions” both by “machine and hand.” By this time, S. P. Zimmerman, who had been Assistant Superintendent, had replaced B. O. Beckett as General Manager. -67-
By early May, 1922, the company was in deep financial trouble. The plant had shipped $750,000 of glass ware in just under four years of operation. -68- However, the company could not meet its financial obligations and failed to pay taxes on the plant. In effect, the company was bankrupt. It is not clear what caused the financial problems at the plant. Perhaps the same business downturn that had caused the American Glass Company in Richmond, Virginia, to shut down for a month in 1921 had also affected Lynchburg. -68a- Existing records simply do not give us enough information. In any case, the company was placed into the hands of N. D. Eller as trustee to sell the property for the benefit of creditors.
N. D. Eller, trustee for the Lynchburg Glass Works, of Lynchburg, Va., under date of May 11, issued a notice to the creditors announcing that the company had executed a general deed of assignment to the trustee on May 5 for the benefit of its creditors, except where a creditor was at the time of the execution of the deed entitled to preference by law. The trustee announces that there are no known preferences except for taxes.
By the terms of the assignment the trustee is required to sell the corporate property as a whole, at public auction to the highest bidder, after due notice has been given. -69-
On June 29, 1922 the property of Lynchburg Glass Works was sold at public auction for $80,000 to a creditors’ committee chaired by John Victor, president of Peoples National Bank of Lynchburg. The committee’s options were either to resell the property at private sale, or to lease the facility long-term to another glass manufacturer. -70-
In December, 1922, a full page ad was placed in The Glass Industry trade journal offering the entire plant and contents for sale (see Lynchburg Glass Works Sale Advertisement). The contact person for the ad was John Victor. -71- The 1923 trade directory listings note that the company was closed and in the hands of creditors. -72-
The plant would remain closed until the end of September, 1923 when the reorganized Lynchburg Glass Corporation would try a second time to make the glass factory profitable.
The story continues with Lynchburg Glass Corporation
Some of the references to Trade Journals are courtesy of Bob Stahr and other researchers at The Insulator Gazette, an archive of glass-making and insulator history. They are referenced here by permission. The text or photocopies of most of the journals and other references below are available at The Insulator Gazette, on this web site, or can be accessed elsewhere on the Internet. Lynchburg's newspaper The Lynchburg News is available on miocrofilm at The Jones Memorial Library in Lynchburg as well as other Virginia state libraries. Issues of The Richmond Times-Dispatch through 1922 are available online.
1. While we do not have detailed financial records from either company, one document may be illustrative. A balance sheet was entered into the later Lynchburg Glass Corporation's Board Minutes from January, 1925 as the company was trying to secure a loan. Officially by accounting practices the company showed a profit of $61,591.38 for the preceding year of 1924. However, a penciled notation beside this entry says "loss for year (43.896.09)", reflecting the actual real time operating situation of the company. Minutes, January 24, 1925.
2. An oral account given to N. R. Woodward in 1959 by William H. Loyd, Secretary and later President of Lynchburg Glass Corporation, reported to Dennis Bratcher by N. R. Woodward in personal correspondance and in an interview in Springfield, Ohio, November 5, 2011. While we do not have production records for Lynchburg Glass Works, some records from the later Lynchburg Glass Corporation illustrate the problem. For the week ending March 22, 1924, 57% of the week's production, 43,218 pieces, was rejected. Weekly Operating Statement for Week ending March 22.
3. Oral account given to N. R. Woodward in 1959 by William H. Loyd, Secretary and later President of Lynchburg Glass Corporation, reported to Dennis Bratcher by N. R. Woodward in personal correspondance and in an interview in Springfield. Ohio, November 5, 2011.
4. Annual Report of the Secretary of the Commonwealth to the Governor and General Assembly of Virginia for the Year Ending October 1, 1917, Richmond: 1918, p. 136; Crockery and Glass Journal, Vol. 87, No. 9, February 28, 1918, p. 15, col. 1, accessed September 3, 2014. Some publications incorrectly list the secretary as D. B. Rylans, Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Vol. 18, Jan 1-June 15, 1918, p. 326; The Glassworker, Vol. 37, No. 16, Saturday, January 18, 1919, p. 5, col. 1, accessed September 3, 2014; Minutes of Proceedings of the Forty-third Annual Convention of the Glass Bottle Blowers' Association the United States and Canada, Camden, NJ, United States, 1919, p. 75-76, col. 1, accessed September 3, 2014; The Glassworker, Vol. 37, No. 26, Saturday, March 29, 1919, p. 13, col. 1.
5. Lynchburg local newspaper, The Lynchburg News, Sunday, February 17, 1918, p. 1. Annual Report of the Secretary of the Commonwealth to the Governor and General Assembly of Virginia for the Year Ending September 30, 1917, Richmond: 1918, p. 337 gives the incorporation date of Dawson Brothers Manufacturing as June 20, 1917.
6. The Lynchburg News, Sunday, February 17, 1918, p. 1.
7. The Lynchburg News, Sunday, February 17, 1918, p. 1. Mr. Eller was the largest single investor in the company, purchasing 200 shares for a total of $8,000. Lynchburg Glass Works Stockholders, 1920.
8. The Lynchburg News, Sunday, February 17, 1918, p. 1.
9. A typewritten list of the stockholders, number of shares each, and price for Lynchburg Glass Works' stocks was found among the records of the Lynchburg Glass Corporation recovered from W. H. Loyd by N. R. Woodward in 1959. Access to the records courtesy of Justin Stoudt. See Lynchburg Glass Works Stockholders, 1920.
10. "The business was operated under the name of the Lynchburg Glass Works, Inc. and was never properly financed from the beginning as they used all of their capital and credit in paying for the plant and after operating under this handicapp [sic] for two years gave it up when they could not obtain the proper backing." Letter, January 10, 1927, Mr. Loyd to C. L Scott.
11. The Lynchburg News, Sunday, February 17, 1918, p. 1.
12. There is a perception among some historians and economists that the business environment at Lynchburg during the early twentieth century was dominated and negatively impacted by an "elite" group of businessmen, what one writer referred to as an "oligarchy" (Clifton Potter and Dorothy Potter, Lynchburg: A City Set on Seven Hills. Arcadia Publishing, 2004, p. 176). There is some opinion that such domination by such a small group of businessmen contributed to stagnation of economic growth in the city and to eventual decline (Chad R. Miller,The Tholian Web: The Political/Institutional Context of Regional Cluster-based Economic Development, Doctoral Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 2006, p. 144-145, published online and accessed March 22, 2012). By 1955, Jean Gottmann gave an even more pointed analysis: ". . . there is small chance that [Lynchburg's] growth will proceed quickly in the foreseeable future …most of the industries are locally owned, and the whole economy of the city is closely controlled by a small number of local families" (Jean Gottmann, Virginia at Mid-Century, Henry Holt, 1955, p. 507). While that reality had made Lynchburg an industrial and economic powerhouse in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, it also hindered adaptation to changing circumstances and the attraction of new industry.
13. The Lynchburg News, Sunday, February 17, 1918, p. 1.
13a. The left cut (at right) is from an early letterhead of the Lynchburg Glass Corporation, which likely reused it from the Lynchburg Glass Works. Note the L in an oval logo on the case. We know from documents that this was the corporate logo of the later Lynchburg Glass Corporation and appears on most of their insulators. It is possible that the logo was added to the cut by the later company. However, it is seems likely that this logo was already in use by the earlier Lynchburg Glass Works, although at this point there is no documentation of that beyond this illustration. However, the center photo shows a simlar logo from a 1921 Lynchburg Glass Works letterhead. The right photo is a token of the Lynchburg Traction and Light Company, which operated Lynchburg's street cars from 1901-1941. It is uncertain when the tokens came into use, and it is likely that they are from no earlier than 1928.
14. A list of stockholders from around 1920 lists Lynchburg Industrial Development Corporation as a major stockholder in the company (90 shares, $3,600). It is unknown whether this was a cash investment or the stocks were in exchange for the land on which the plant was built.
15. The Lynchburg News, Sunday, February 17, 1918, p. 1; The Lynchburg News, Thursday, February 21, 1918, p. 1. Trade journal reports confirm that the primary purpose of the plant was to produce food containers, Standard Corporation Service, Daily Revised, September–December, 1918, "December," p. 200.
16. The Lynchburg News, Thursday, February 21, 1918, p. 1; The World News (Roanoke, Va), Volume 31, Number 49, February 26, 1918, p. 9, col. 3, accessed August 31, 2015. Nathan D. Eller, who had been associated with Piedmont Mills, and Walker Pettyjohn of Peoples National Bank had previously served together on the board of Glamorgan Pipe and Foundry Company of Lynchburg. "Glamorgan Pipe and Foundry Company" in Manufacturers’ Record: Thirty Years of Southern Up-building, Vol. LXI, No. 7, Part II, Feb 22, 1912, p. 108.
16a. The Salem Times-Register and Sentinel (Salem, Va), Volume 46, Number 7, July 13, 1911, p. 5, col. 3, accessed August 31, 2015
17. The Lynchburg News, Thursday, February 21, 1918, p. 1.
18. An advertisement for laborers ran in The Lynchburg News on Friday through Sunday, June 28 - June 30, 1918: "WANTED AT ONCE--Six laborers at Lynchburg Glass Works. Ask for Cox & Sons Co.'s foreman."
19. Lynchburg Glass Works Stockholders, 1920
20. American Contractor, August 17, 1918, Vol. 39, No. 33, pp. 50, 53; American Machinist, 1918, Vol. 49, p. 410; Minutes of Proceedings of the Forty-third Annual Convention of the Glass Bottle Blowers' Association of the United States and Canada, Camden, NJ, United States, 1919, p. 75-76, col. 1.
21. Annual Report of the Secretary of the Commonwealth to the Governor and General Assembly of Virginia for the Year Ending September 30, 1918, Richmond: 1919, p. 334; Sixteenth Annual Report of the State Corporation Commission of Virginia for the Year Ending December 30, 1918, Richmond: 1919, p. 355; Standard Corporation Service, Daily Revised, September–December, 1918, "December," p. 200.
21a.The Richmond Times-Dispatch, Sunday, December 22, 1918, p. 2, col. 2, accessed February 6, 2014. The Richmond Times-Dispatch, Sunday, December 29, 1918, p. 2, col. 4, accessed February 6, 2014.
22. Standard Corporation Service, Daily Revised, September–December, 1918, p. 200.
23. "During the year, the Lynchburg Glass Works was organized under the auspices of the Chamber of Commerce and this plant, although laboring under terrible disabilities in the line of building material, etc., has practically been completed and is expected to go into operation within the next 30 days." The Lynchburg News, Sunday, January 5, 1919, p. 1. In late December, 1918, The Richmond Times-Dispatch had reported that the plant was aiming to light the fires to dry the furnaces by January 1 and put the plant into production in early January. Richmond Times-Dispatch, December 23, 1918, p. 5. col. 4.
24. Letter, January 10, 1927, Mr. Loyd to C. L Scott
25. Approximately N37.39881° W79.14221°.
26. Information about the plant is from a “For Sale” advertisement in The Glass Industry, New York, NY, Vol. 3, No. 12, December, 1922, p. 10 (see Lynchburg Glass Works Sale Advertisement), as well as a Lynchburg Glass Corporation Advertising Brochure, c. 1924. Information about the city of Lynchburg in the brochure is largely from a Chamber of Commerce promotional book, Lynchburg in Old Virginia: The City of Industry and Opportunity, published by The Publicity and Advertising Committee of the Chamber of Commerce, January, 1919 (reprinted, 1924).
27. Lynchburg Glass Corporation Advertising Brochure, c. 1924. "The advantages of location peculiar to Lynchburg are (1) that which comes in economy in assembling raw materials of a high grade; (2) geographical situation with regard to markets; (3) facilities for and cheapness of distribution." "Glamorgan Pipe and Foundry Company" in Manufacturers’ Record: Thirty Years of Southern Up-building, Vol. LXI, No. 7, Part II, Feb 22, 1912, p. 108.
28. Lynchburg's original supply of sand came from deposits "near Stapleton in Amherst country, about 12 miles north of east from the city of Lynchburg." Thomas L. Watson, “Glass-Sand Resources of Virginia,” in Journal of the American Ceramic Society, January, 1919, Vol. 2, No. 1. pp. 796-798; The Lynchburg News, Sunday, February 17, 1918, p. 1.
29. The Glassworker, vol. 37, no. 16, Saturday, January 18, 1919, p. 5, col. 1; Glass Factory Directory, Pittsburgh, PA, 1919, p. 47, col. 1. While there were two tanks constructed, only one was ever put into production.
30. The Glassworker, vol. 37, no. 16, Saturday, January 18, 1919, p. 5, col. 1, available at The Insulator Gazette; Minutes of Proceedings of the Forty-third Annual Convention of the Glass Bottle Blowers' Association of the United States and Canada, Camden, NJ, United States, 1919, p. 75-76, col. 1, available at The Insulator Gazette.
31. Information about the plant is from a “For Sale” advertisement in The Glass Industry, New York, NY, Vol. 3, No. 12, December, 1922, p. 10 (see Lynchburg Glass Works Sale Advertisement, as well as a Lynchburg Glass Corporation Advertising Brochure.
32. This photo is from Lynchburg in Old Virginia: The City of Industry and Opportunity, published by The Publicity and Advertising Committee of the Chamber of Commerce, January, 1919 (reprinted, 1924), p. 10. This was a detailed promotional booklet published by the Lynchburg Chamber of Commerce.
33. The later Lynchburg Glass Corporation upgraded the larger "No. 1" furnace so that it could run on either gas or oil, and eventually converted part of the furnace to run on oil. Minutes, April 4, 1924; Minutes, June 10, 1924. The second furnace was never used by either company.
34. Letter, W. H. Loyd to Hartford-Empire Company, November 1, 1927.
35. [notations on insurance documents]
36. Samuel S. Wyer, “Notes on Gas Producers” in Machinery, Vol. 12, September, 1905-August, 1906, (July, 1906), Industrial Press, 1906, pp. 588-589.
36a. [notations on insurance documents]
38. The Lynchburg News, XX, 1919. A Richmond, Va., newspaper gave the beginning date as Tuesday, March 18, 1919. The Richmond Times-Dispatch, Thursday, March 13, 1919, p. 7, col. 3; accessed February 6, 2014; The Richmond Times-Dispatch, Monday, March 17, 1919, p. 3, col. 2; accessed February 6, 2014.
39. "This first company [Lynchburg Glass Works] equiped [sic] and operated only one furnace . . .." Letter, January 10, 1927, Mr. Loyd to C. L Scott.
40. "The plant of the Lynchburg Glass Works will
be put into commission next Tuesday
morning. A goodly number of expert
glass blowers and machine operators
have been imported to man the plant,
and much new help will be taught the
business from Lynchburg people. The
company is backed by local capital,
and it starts with good business in
prospect." The Richmond Times-Dispatch, Monday, March 17, 1919, p. 3, col. 2; accessed February 6, 2014. "On March 24th I installed the officers and officially organized the branch. I know most of the men personally, many of them having been delegates to our conventions from Bridgeton, Millville, and other places, so I am sure this plant will be a valuable addition to our association.” Minutes of Proceedings of the Forty-third Annual Convention of the Glass Bottle Blowers' Association of the United States and Canada, Camden, NJ, United States, 1919, p. 75-76, col. 1. The area around Salem, Bridgeton, Elmer, and Millville, N.J. was home to several glass companies, including Cumberland (1880-1920), Cohansey (1870-1900), Gayner (1898-1957), Whitall-Tatum (1806-1938), Novelty Glass (1901-1903), and Sterling (1902-1903).
40aa. "Delegate Ruperts, Branch 108, stated that the Lynchburg Glass Works was anxious to engage three shops to make small ware." Minutes of Proceedings of the Forty Third Annual Convention of the Glass Bottle Blowers Association of United States and Canada, Atlantic City, July, 1919, accessed May 23, 2017. In the glass industry, a shop was a group of workers that together formed a shift to make ware.
40a. The Standard Chilled Castings Corporation was a reorginization of the Standard Plow Company of Lynchburg. "The new plant of the Standard Chilled Castings Corporation, Lynchburg, Va., recently organized, will comprise the local factory of Dawson Brothers, acquired by the company, which will be remodeled and converted into a foundry for the manufacture of agricultural equipment, including plow parts." Yearly Index of Forging and Heat Treating 1921, Vol. 7, No. 1, January, 1921, p. 151; also No. 2, February, 1921, p. 151, col. 3. The Foundry, Vol. 49, no. 4, February 15, 1921, p. 170, cols. 2-3; The Lynchburg News, Sunday, January 2, 1921, p. 1, col. 7. Sometime in 1919, Dawson Brothers manufacturing had constructed a new building and "considerably enlarged their capacity". The Lynchburg News, Sunday, January 5, 1919, p. 1. col. 4, col 6. While it is not stated, this expansion may have contributed to the company's failure.
41. "The plant of the Lynchburg Glass Works has resumed operations." The Glassworker, Vol 37, No. 26, Saturday March 29, 1919, p. 13, col. 1.
42. " . . . the volume of shipments for 1920 was 302,000 dollars in beverage bottles and prescription ware." Letter, January 10, 1927, Mr. Loyd to C. L Scott.
Apothcary symbol for ounce
43. Lynchburg's medicinal or druggist bottles were machine-made and were commonly called "oval" bottles in the trade catalogs. They are flat on the front and rounded on reverse, with raised graduated capacity and volume markings in both ounces (front left edge) and cubic centimeters (cc, front right edge) from near the bottom to the base of the neck. Centered at the top of the front flat panel they are marked with the apothecary symbol for ounce (℥, which looks like a stylized 3) followed by lower case Roman numerals to indicate bottle size in fluid ounce capacity (except for the 1/2 ounce). Although Lynchburg had molds for sizes from 1/2 to 32 ounces, I have only confirmed 1/2 ounce (℥ 1/2), 1 ounce (℥ i), and 8 ounce (℥ viii) bottles, all with the maker's mark "Lbg." on the bottom. [The apothecary symbol will display in the text only if you have Lucinda Sans Unicode font installed; see graphic above right.] On at least one bottle, the one ounce, the b of the logo is backwards, so that it reads "Ldg" (see Is It a Lynchburg?).
43a. There are some bottles that carry the L in an oval logo and may have been made by one of the Lynchburg companies. See Is It A Lynchburg?
43b. Backwards letters are a common occurrence on molded products from this era. Lettering had to be engraved backwards in the molds as a mirror image in order to produce the correct lettering on the finished product. Letters often confused are lower case b and d, and often reversed are capitals N and L, both upper and lower case S, and the numbers 2 and 4. The backward "b" on the one ounce bottle is the only known reversal on Lynchburg Glass Works products. However, S, N, L, 2, and 4 occur reversed on later Lynchburg Glass Corporation's insulators (for example, see CD 252, Mold D).
Lynchburg Coca-Cola bottle with" Lbg 20" (1920)
Base marked "Washington NC"
"Lbg 20" on heel and no markings on base
44. Root Glass Company of Terre Haute, IN, designed the contour Coke bottle and first produced it, probably for limited venues in 1917. Six other glass companies were then licensed to produce the bottle the second year: American Glass Works (Richmond, VA), Chattanooga Glass and Bottle Manufacturing Company (Chattanooga, TN), Graham Glass Company (Evansville, IN), Laurens Glass Works (Laurens, SC), Pacific Glass Works (San Francisco, CA), and Lynchburg Glass Works. Norman L. Dean, The Man Behind the Bottle, Xlibris Corporation [private printing], 2010, pp. 33-34, accessed July 31, 2014.
"The Lynchburg Glass Works,
Lynchburg, Virginia, began production
about February 1919 and probably made
Coke bottles from its inception. The
firm embossed its 'Lbg' logo on the
heels of 1915-patent Coke bottles that
were a smoky gray in color. . ..
We have only discovered a single '20'
(1920) code on a Lynchburg bottle. The
plant burned in 1921 and never resumed
bottle manufacture (although it continued
to make insulators and jars). Some bottles
were embossed with 'Lbg' on both heel
and base but have no date codes. These
were probably made during 1919." Bill Lockhart and Bill Porter, "The Dating Game: Tracking the Hobble-skirt Coca-Cola Bottle," in Bottles and Extras, September-October, 2010, Vol 21, No. 5, p. 52, accessed February 6, 2914. Note that two details of this quote are incorrect. First, the "plant" did not burn, only the power house housing the steam generating boilers. Second, the Lynchburg Glass Works never made insulators. It was only the later Lynchburg Glass Corporation that began insulator production in 1923.
Lynchburg's 1915 Patent Coca-Cola bottles have been confirmed with base city marks from Greenville, Shelby, Concord, High Point, and Washington, NC, as well as Farmville and Lynchburg, VA. Unconfirmed reports include Chester, SC and Culpeper, VA. There are probably other cities as well. They are usually embossed "Lbg" and a date code of 19 or 20 on the heel of the bottle (see photos upper and lower right). Heel marked bottles also occur with both a city and "Lbg" on the base, with only "Lbg" on the base, and with no lettering on the base (see photo lower right). There are bottles of identical color to Lynchburg's bottles from cities in North Carolina but without the makers mark "Lbg." While it is possible that these were also made by Lynchburg, at present there is no evidence available to confirm it.
45. The Pepsi-Cola company had not yet standardized bottle shapes so the design was up to the local bottler and bottle maker. The Encyclopedia of Pepsi-Cola Collectibles, ed. Bob Stoddard, Krause Publications, 2002, p. 114; accessed February 6, 2014.
Coca-Cola bottle with "LGW 19" (1919)
46. On some Coca-Cola bottles, the initials "LGW" with the date code "19" or "20" occur on the heel of the bottle (photo right). Other bottles, such as Tru-Ade soda, also bear this mark. These were NOT made by Lynchburg. They were made by Laurens Glass Works of Laurens, SC (1910-1996). Laurens was also one of the first six companies to obtain a license to make the 1915 patented Coca-Cola bottle. Norman L. Dean, The Man Behind the Bottle, Xlibris Corporation [private printing], 2010, pp. 33-34,; accessed Fabruary 6, 2014. See Is It a Lynchburg?
46a. The Richmond Times-Dispatch, Thursday, April 03, 1919, p. 9, col. 1, accessed February 6, 2014.
46b. The Richmond Times-Dispatch, Saturday, May 10, 1919, p. 14, col. 4; accessed February 6, 2014. An earlier wire service story reported that only 2 or 3 had quit, Hattiesburg American, Hattiesburg, Miss., May 9, 1919, p. 1, col. 5, accessed April 12, 2017.
46c. The Richmond Times-Dispatch, Monday, May 12, 1919, p. 2, col. 4, accessed February 6, 2014.
47. The Glassworker, Pittsburgh, Pa, vol. 37, no. 43, Saturday, July 26, 1919. p. 1 - 13, col. 1.
47a. The Richmond Times-Dispatch, Sunday, June 22, 1919, p. 12, col 5; accessed February 6, 2014. The Richmond Times-Dispatch., Tuesday, July 01, 1919, [page number not available], cols. 3-4; accessed February 6, 2014.
48. The American Flint, Vol. 11, No, 1, November, 1919, p. 27, col. 1. Published by the American Flint Glass Workers' Union.
49. Glass Factory Directory, Pittsburgh, PA, United States, 1919, p. 47, col. 1; American Glass Trade Directory, Pittsburgh, PA, 1919, p. 11, 20, 47, 55, col. 1; Trade Directory, Containing list of Manufacturers of Pottery, Glassware, Enamel and Aluminum Ware, Pittsburgh, PA, 1919, p. 37,47, col. 1.
49a. In a later letter, W. H. Loyd in referring to the total production of the plant only mentioned "prescription bottles and beverage ware." Letter, January 24, 1927, W. H. Loyd to Jonathan Berkley.
50. Glass Factory Directory, Pittsburgh, PA, 1920, pp. 63,79-80, col. 1; Trade Directory, Containing list of Manufacturers of Pottery, Glassware, Enamel and Aluminum Ware, Pittsburgh, PA, 1920, p. 35,46, col. 1; American Glass Trade Directory, Pittsburgh, PA, 1920, pp. 11 ,22, 50, 58, col. 1.
51. The Circular, Toledo, OH, Saturday, No. 63, August 21, 1920, p. 1324, col. 2. Available at The Insultor Gazette
52. The Glassworker, Pittsburgh, PA, vol. 39, no. 47, Saturday, August 21, 1920, p. 18, col. 2-3.
53. "Lynchburg Glass Co., Lynchburg, Va., has put on the third shift." The Bottle Maker, Vol. 1. No. 4, October, 1921, p. 14, col. 2, Published by the Glass Bottle Blowers Association of the United States and Canada, accessed March 9, 2015. The date of this publication is misleading. In all likelihood, this was a delayed report from 1920, not unusual in trade journals. During September and October of 1921, Lynchburg Glass Works was rebuilding part of the plant destroyed by fire, and was probably not running three shifts at that time. And we know from other reports that by March of 1921 the plant was only running one shift. The Lynchburg News, Sunday Morning, March 27, 1921, p. 5, col 12.
54. " . . .the volume of shipments for 1920 was 302,000. dollars in beverage bottles and prescription ware." Letter, January 10, 1927, W. H. Loyd to C. L Scott.
54a. The World News (Roanoke, Va), Vol. 36, No. 146 (December 17, 1920), p. 10, col. 5, accessed August 31, 2015.
55. National Glass Budget, Pittsburgh, PA, Vol. 36, No. 44, Saturday, March 5, 1921, p. 6, col. 2; Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Vol. 24, Jan 10-June 30, 1921, p. 411.
56. "Work at the Lynchburg Glass Works was resumed Monday, March 14. The company is now running only one shift but an officer of the plant said last week that he expected the second shift of men would soon be put back to work." The Lynchburg News, Sunday Morning, March 27, 1921, p. 5, col 12.
57. Daily News-Record, Harrisonburg, Virginia, Saturday, December 3, 1921, p. 1.
58. The Glass Industry, Vol 2, No. 7, July 1921, pp. 178-179; Letter, W. H. Loyd to Florida Glass Mfg. Co, July 28, 1927.
59. National Glass Budget, Pittsburgh, PA, Vol. 37, No. 13, Saturday, July 30, 1921, p. 1, col. 2-3; National Glass Budget, Pittsburgh, PA, Vol. 37, No. 14, Saturday, August 6, 1921, p. 17, col. 1-2.
60. American Glass Trade Directory, Pittsburgh, PA, 1921, p. 11,22,55,62, col. 1; Glass Factory Directory, Pittsburgh, PA, 1921, p. 67, 85, col. 1; Trade Directory, Containing list of Manufacturers of Pottery, Glassware, Enamel and Aluminum Ware, Pittsburgh, PA, 1921, p. 49,60, col. 1.
60a. "The plant of the Lynchburg Glass Company, which suffered a $10,000 loss several weeks ago by fire in the boiler room, has resumed operation . . ." The Washington Herald, September 16, 1921, p. 1, col. 3. The same report was in The Washington Times, September 11, 1921, p. 2, col. 8. Also The Richmond Times-Dispatch, Monday, August 29, 1921, p. 1, col. 3
A Sanborn insurance map has a notation on the power house: "Blr. Ho. burned. To be built of corr iron & steel". The latest date on the map is 1927, but that is not an indication of the date of the comment since the same map was used continuously with updates added in the form of cutouts pasted onto the map and added notations. The title of the map still bears the name "Lynchburg Glass Works, Inc, Mfs Coca-Cola & Other Bottles", yet with the notation "Not in operation 5/27". Sanborn maps accessed at the Jones Memorial Library, Lynchburg, Va., October, 2012.
61. The Glassworker, Pittsburgh, PA, Vol. 41, No. 1, Saturday, October 1, 1921, p. 13, col. 3.
61a. The Washington Times, September 11, 1921, p. 2, col. 8.
62. The Glass Industry, New York, NY, Vol. 2, No. 11, November 1921, p. 280, col. 1.
63. The Richmond Times-Dispatch, September 4, 1921, p. 31, col. 3; The Washington Herald, September 16, 1921, p. 1, col. 3; The Washington Times, September 11, 1921, p. 2, col. 8;
63a. Bill Lockhart and Bill Porter, "The Dating Game: Tracking the Hobble-skirt Coca-Cola Bottle," in Bottles and Extras, September-October, 2010, Vol 21, No. 5, p. 52; accessed February 6, 2014. As late as August 18, 1921, nine days before the fire, N. D. Eller was still solicitating Coca-Cola bottlers for orders, Lynchburg Glass Works Letter, 1921.
64. National Glass Budget, Pittsburgh, PA, Vol. 36, No. 44, Saturday, March 5, 1921, p. 6, col. 2; Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Vol. 24, Jan 10-June 30, 1921, p. 411.
66. "Lynchburg Glass Plant Closes Down (by the Associated Press) Lynchburg, Dec. 2 - Announcement was made here today that the Lynchburg Glass Company will close its plant after tomorrow, lack of orders being given as the reason. Ninety-five workers will be thrown out of employment certainly until after January 1. The plant has been operated continuously since March 15." Daily News-Record, Harrisonburg, Virginia, Saturday, December 3, 1921, p. 1; The Richmond Times Dispatch, December 4, 1921, p. 6, col. 6.; The World News (Roanoke, Va), Volume 38, Number 137, December 6, 1921, p. 4, col. 1, specified that the lack of orders was from soft drink plants.
67. Glass Factory Directory, Pittsburgh, PA, 1922, pp. 25, 86, 88, col. 1; American Glass Trade Directory, Pittsburgh, PA, 1922, pp. 11, 24, 61, 68, col. 1; Trade Directory, Containing list of Manufacturers of Pottery, Glassware, Enamel and Aluminum Ware, Pittsburgh, PA, 1922, p. 43,58, col. 1.
68. "With regard to the shipments of glass bottles of the first corporation to operate the plant, somewhere near seven hundred and fifty thousand dollars worth of prescription bottles and beverage ware was shipped." Letter, January 24, 1927, W. H. Loyd to Jonathan Berkley.
68a. "The plant . . .
was compel to close on account of
business conditions." The Richmond Times-Dispatch, Sunday, January 16, 1921, p. 20, col. 2, accessed February 6, 2014.
69. The Glassworker, Pittsburgh, PA, Vol. 41, No. 34, Saturday, May 20, 1922, p. 7-8, col. 2, 1; The Lynchburg News, Wednesday, June 28, 1922, p. 10, col 7; Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Vol 27, No. 3, July 19, 1922, p. 144, col 1. The official legal notice of the sale published in The Lynchburg News noted that "The trustee reserves the right to offer the foregoing property in parcels and afterwards as a whole . . .." The Lynchburg News, Wednesday, June 28, 1922, p. 10, col. 7.
70. The Glass Industry, New York, NY, Vol. 3, No. 8, August, 1922, p. 168, col. 2. Available at The Insulator Gazette; Deed Book 126, City of Lynchburg, p. 464, No. 975.
71. The Glass Industry, New York, NY, Vol. 3, No. 12, December, 1922, p. 10.
72. Glass Factory Directory, Pittsburgh, PA, 1923, p. 88, col. 1; American Glass Trade Directory, Pittsburgh, PA, 1923, p. 3, 15, 42, 50, col. 1; Trade Directory, Containing list of Manufacturers of Pottery, Glassware, Enamel and Aluminum Ware, Pittsburgh, PA, 1923, p. 45, 64, col. 1.