Lynchburg Insulators

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Lynchburg CD 106

NO. 10 Pony

CD 106, Telephone

Original Molds: Gayner, Lynchburg

Number of molds known: 25 (not all confirmed)

Mold Types: 2

Major Lettering Arrangements: 6

Lettering Variations: 23 (?)

Crown Lettering: No

Retooled Molds: Yes

Base Types: CDP, RDP

Number made: 1,282,611* (1,090,841 No. 10 and 191,770 No. 90)

Original Price 1924: $32.00 per 1,000; 3.2 cents each

** The listed total comes from Lynchburg production records, and may not include pieces made in clear and clear-tinted colors (see Birmingham).


Colors: Lt. Aqua, Aqua, Lt. Blue Aqua, Blue Aqua, Dk. Blue Aqua, Lt. Sage Green, Ice Green, Green, Yellow Green, Dk. Yellow Green, Olive Yellow Green, Clear, Clear w/Smoky Gray tint, Clear w/Pink Tint, Clear w/Amber Tint (Straw), Clear w/Sage Green tint, Olive Amber, Green w/amber swirls, Yellow green w/amber swirls, Bi-color Aqua and Green


The Lynchburg CD 106 was made from both reworked Gayner molds and from molds made by Lynchburg. Yet, we do not know whether the "Lynchburg made" molds were actually made new by Lynchburg or whether they were modified from various Gayner molds. Lynchburg advertised a "machine shop equipped for the manufacture and repair of moulds," so they had the capability of making new molds (see Lynchburg Advertising Brochure). In any case, since Lynchburg produced over 1.1 million of these from a variety of molds it is not surprising that the story of the CD 106 is complicated (see Chart of CD 106 Production Records).

Gayner Molds

There are four types of Gayner CD 106, at least three of which were used by Lynchburg. Gayner CD 106 Type I is characterized by a small dome with a 7mm slightly sloping rim between the dome and edge of the wire groove. The lower wire groove lip is thick and squared with a relatively shallow wire groove. These are sometimes called "peak tops." This type may have been reworked by Gayner or later by Lynchburg.

Gayner CD 106 Type II and Gayner CD 106 Type III both have a flatter crown with a slightly narrower crown rim (6mm). These are sometime called "hat tops." The difference between Gayner CD 106 Type II and G Type III is in the shape of the lower wire groove lip.In Gayner CD 106 Type II, the lip is thick and squared, about 7mm high. In Gayner CD 106 Type III, the lip is more rounded and thinner, about 5mm high.

Gayner CD 106 Type IV is identical to the final Lynchburg shape with a smoothly rounded crown that slopes to the upper wire groove ridge, which then slopes more smoothly to the upper skirt. It is not known whether Gayner retooled most or all of its earlier molds to this shape, or began making new molds. Since the earlier styles are more commonly found and the Gayner Type IV is not as well represented, it is likely that Gayner had only just begun modifying older molds to the new shape when they ceased making insulators. This is supported by the fact that Lynchburg under the leadership of William Gayner continued this process of converting Gayner CD 106 molds molds to this shape. In any case, this type became the "standard" look for Lynchburg's CD 106.

Gayner Type I Gayner Type II Gayner Type III Gayner Type IV

CD 106 Gayner Type I with small rounded crown and thick, squared lower wire groove lip.

CD 106 Gayner Type II with flattened crown and thick, squared lower wire groove lip.

CD 106 Gayner Type III with flattened crown and thinner, rounded lower wire groove lip.

CD 106 Gayner Type IV with fully rounded crown and sloping lower wire groove lip.


Comparison of Gayner molds, thick, squared wire groove lip (Type I and II, left),
and the thinner, rounded lip (Type III, right)

The connection of Gayner Type IV with Lynchburg's CD 106 is obvious. The Gayner Type IV could be converted easily by retooling the skirt and re-engraving the Lynchburg name and logo, yet without reworking the shape of the mold.

From existing Lynchburg pieces, it is obvious that Lynchburg used and retooled both Gayner Type II and Type III molds since both occur on Lynchburg CD 106. It seems reasonable to conclude that they also reworked Gayner Type I molds, but there is no way to distinguish them. It is possible that Gayner had already reworked or begun reworking Gayner Type I molds into the later Gayner type molds, and that Lynchburg continued the process. It is even possible that there was a sequence of Gayner reworkings to adapt the obsolete Gayner Type I into the more competitive shapes of Gayner Types II, III, and IV. As noted above, it is even possible that Gayner began making new molds for Gayner Type IV. The reality is that we do not have enough information to determine which molds were retooled, by whom, or in what sequence. What we can say with certainty is that Lynchburg adapted Gayner molds and used Gayner Type IV as the "standard" Lynchburg CD 106 even on molds that may have been made by Lynchburg.

If either Gayner or Lynchburg reworked older CD 106 molds (Gayner Types I-III), the crown was reshaped to make it larger and sloping to the edge of the upper wire groove lip, reflecting the later Gayner Type IV (see Lynchburg Type II below). However, there is evidence that Lynchburg had at least two older types of Gayner molds, Gayner Types I and II. On these two molds Lynchburg only retooled the Gayner mold to add their own lettering and did not alter the crown. At this point, we do not know if Lynchburg modified any Gayner Type I molds, or how many older molds Gayner had already modified into Type IV. In any case, this creates two varieties of the Lynchburg CD 106. [Note that in the following descriptions, Gayner and Lynchburg Type numbers are different; see Chart below.]

Lynchburg Type I
from Gayner Type II Mold
Lynchburg Type II
from Gayner Type IV mold

Lynchburg Type I has a smaller crown top that leaves a 5mm ledge on the top side of the upper wire groove lip. These are sometimes called "hat tops." Both Gayner Type II and Type III were used by Lynchburg for these. There are three confirmed molds of this type (4, 6, 9). CD 106 I, Mold G4 (and Mold G4.1) and CD 106 I, Mold 6.1 are retooled Gayner CD 106 Type III, with a narrower and rounded upper wire groove lip. Both of these molds were also produced with a Lynchburg Type II crown, one of the few documented examples of Lynchburg lower mold thirds being paired with different crowns (see comparison below). CD 106 I, Mold G9 (and Mold G9.1) is a retooled Gayner CD 106 Type II, with a thicker and squared upper wire groove lip.

Lynchburg Type II has a larger fully rounded crown that slopes to the edge of the upper wire groove ridge. While the slope is not exactly the same in all molds, the overall appearance is very consistent and gives the Lynchburg CD 106 a unique profile shared only with Gayner CD 106 Type IV and Birmingham CD 106. Lynchburg Type II occurs as both reworked Gayner molds and as Lynchburg made molds. The Lynchburg Type II reworked from Gayner molds can be distinguished from Lynchburg made Type II molds (see below) by the arrangement of the lettering. Reworked Gayner molds of both types always arrange the front lettering with LYNCHBURG above the L logo, while Lynchburg made molds always have LYNCHBURG below the logo, or are absent the logo. [This needs further research and support.]

Remnants of blot-outs beneath LYNCHBURG can be seen on some of the reworked Gayner molds. On the reverse a circular blot out following NO occurs on most Gayner molds, as well as tightly spaced reverse lettering. Since the Lynchburg Type II is defined by the shape of the crown and the placement of the lettering, no distinction is made between reworked Gayner Type II and Gayner Type III that were retooled into Lynchburg Type II.

-compare versions-
Comparison of the three versions of CD 106 Mold G4, showing the use of different crown tops on the same mold: Left: Type I (I, Mold G4) with original lettering and Gayner-style "hat" crown; Center: Type II (II, Mold G4) with original lettering and later modified rounded crown; Right: Type I (I Mold G4.1) with retooled lettering but with original Gayner-style "hat" crown.

On most reworked Gayner molds, the mold number is located on the reverse below NO. 10. It is usually overcut and partially obliterated by the word MADE (see below); it is often beneath the D of MADE. Since the early Lynchburg retooling of the Gayner molds obscured the mold number, some pieces are difficult to identify. On later retoolings, a new mold number was usually added to the front skirt to the right of the L logo (see above).

Lynchburg CD 106 mold number
Lynchburg lettering engraved over the Gayner mold number.

Some have suggested that the No Name CD 106 NO. 9 and NO. 90, which many assume were Gayner products since they are identical to Gayner CD 106 Type I, were also reworked into Lynchburg molds. Since we do not know with certainty that these were made by Gayner, and, if so, whether Mr. Gayner brought those molds with him to Lynchburg, there is no way to confirm that these were made into Lynchburg CD 106. However, evidence does point to these being Gayner products, so it is certainly possible. It is more likely that they had already been reworked by Gayner into one of the newer Gayner profiles (Gayner Type II, III, or IV).

Lynchburg production records indicate that 191,770 NO. 90 were produced at Lynchburg between November 1 and December 31, 1923. We do not know if NO. 90 was an early designation for the NO. 10 or if perhaps Lynchburg produced some of the Gayner NO. 9 and No Name NO. 90 at the Lynchburg plant. We do know that a January 5, 1924, "Price List #1" lists a NO. 10 Pony but makes no reference to a NO. 90. Production records indicate that the first run of NO. 10 was January 1 to February 9, 1924 (346,573). This suggests that at least by early 1924, the NO. 10 had replaced the NO. 90, either as a style designation or as a differently lettered insulator, or both. (See No-Name Lynchburgs?)

Comparison of Lynchburg Type I Gayner Mold (left, I, G9.1) and Lynchburg Type II Lynchburg mold (right, II, L9).

Lynchburg Molds

The Lynchburg-made molds are all Lynchburg Type II [as noted above, we do not know whether these "Lynchburg-made" molds were actually manufactured by Lynchburg, or were reworked from various types of Gayner CD 106 molds]. They appear similar to Lynchburg's reworked Gayner Type II, except for the arrangement of the lettering. On the front, all Lynchburg molds place LYNCHBURG below the L logo when present. At least two Lynchburg molds occur without the L logo (Mold LA, Mold L5). Also, on the reverse, the lettering is much more widely spaced, often with 15mm or more between NO. and 10 (see below). There is also a barely discernible difference in the slope of the crown, with a slight concave curve in the mold in the modified Gayner molds and a more straight slope in the Lynchburg molds.

Three front lettering arrangements for Lynchburg CD 106: LYNCHBURG above logo, Gayner molds (left); LYNCHBURG below logo, Lynchburg molds (center); LYNCHBURG without logo, Lynchburg molds (right). Compare also the slightly different slope of the crown on reworked Gayner molds (far left) and the Lynchburg molds (center, right).

One of the problems with this style insulator was a thin lower skirt, which resulted in excessive chipping around the base. In later production, most Lynchburg Type II molds were retooled to thicken the lower part of the skirt, which caused the loss of some of the lower lettering (orginal Gayner Type II molds were not altered). As a result, various parts of the lower lettering are missing or partially visible (see CD 106 Retooling Identification Guide for a list of these modifications). At this time, we do not have enough information to know if this retooling was done by Lynchburg or by Birmingham Glass Works after the molds were sold to them. Most of the existing retooled pieces occur in clear tinted colors. Some have suggested that pieces in these colors were made by Birmingham even though they still carried the Lynchburg name (see Colors of Lynchburg Glass Insulators and Birmingham). If Birmingham were making insulators with the LYNCHBURG name, it is understandable that the loss of the Lynchburg lettering on the finished product might be acceptable. However, there do exist a few of the retooled pieces in light blue and light aqua (for example, CD 106 II, Mold L10.1), which suggests that they might have been made at Lynchburg, and therefore that the retooling could also have been done by Lynchburg. It is possible that Lynchburg began the retooling and produced some pieces while the remainder were retooled and produced at Birmingham.

Example of retooling to strengthen the lower skirt, which caused the loss of the lower lettering (original Mold L7, left in each pair, retooled Mold L7.1, right). The slight difference in height is due to different drip point collars.

Lynchburg's CD 106 NO. 10 occurs with various types of CDP and RDP. No pieces have been found with SB.

The No. 10 CD 106 was Lynchburg's most prolific insulator, with 1,282,611 made throughout most of the life of the company. All lettering on the molds is hand engraved, with the exception of a few mold numbers that are die stamped.

Mold Numbers

There are 24 possible molds of CD 106 No. 10 (there may be more), with most of these retooled one or more times. There are 12 numbered Gayner molds and one unnumbered mold. Most of these were retooled at least once. This is complicated by the fact that at least one mold was used with different types of crown tops. There are 11 confirmed numbered Lynchburg molds and one unnumbered mold; there may exist a thirteenth mold. A further complication is that the unnumbered mold may have later been numbered, a practice confirmed in both Lynchburg CD 112 and CD 145. This awaits further research.

In the menu below, the mold numbers are listed with the Type number (I or II) and G for Gayner molds, or L for Lynchburg molds (all Lynchburg molds are Type II); the unnumbered molds are indicated by letters (Mold LA). Most of these molds were retooled to strengthen the lettering or to thicken the skirt. Retooled molds are indicated by a decimal number after the mold number (CD 106 II, Mold G1.2 = Lynchburg Type II, the second retooling of Gayner Mold 1).

Molds below in gray are assumed or (reported) to exist but have not been confirmed; they may or may not exist. Molds in brackets have been confirmed but do not yet have photos.

Gayner Molds, Type I

I, Mold G4 I, Mold G4.1 (I, Mold G6) I, Mold G6.1 I, Mold G9 I, Mold G9.1  

Gayner Molds, Type II

II, Mold G1 II, Mold G1.1 II, Mold G1.2 II, Mold G2 II, Mold 2.1 II, Mold G3 II, Mold G3.1
II, Mold G3.2 II, Mold G4 II, Mold G5 II, Mold G5.1 II, Mold G6 II, Mold G6.1 II, Mold 6.2
II, Mold G7 II, Mold G7.1 II, Mold G8 II, Mold G8.1 [II, Mold 9] [II, Mold G10] II, Mold G10.1
II, Mold G11 II, Mold G11.1 [II, Mold G12] II, Mold G12.1 II, Mold G12.2 II, Mold GA* [II, Mold GA.1]*

* Mold GA may actually be a numbered mold although no number is visible on the several pieces I have examined.

Lynchburg Molds (all molds are Type II)

Mold L1 (Mold L1.1) Mold L2 Mold L2.1 Mold L3 Mold L3.1 Mold L4 Mold L4.1 Mold L5
Mold L6 Mold L6.1 Mold L7 Mold L7.1 Mold L8 Mold L8.1 Mold L9 Mold L9.1 Mold L10
Mold L10.1 Mold L11 Mold L11.1 Mold L12 Mold L12.1 Mold LA* Mold LA.1*    

* Mold LA may actually be a numbered mold although no number is visible on the several pieces I have examined. It is possible that this mold is the missing CD 106 Type II Mold 11.

Additional Information

Chart of Production Records for CD 106

Dates Number Produced
Oct 29 to Dec 29, 1924 191,770*
Dec 31 to Feb 9, 1924 346,573
Nov 10 to Nov 15, 1924 13,114
Nov 24 to Dec 13, 1924 100,298
Jan 19 to Feb 14, 1925 163,445
Mar 2 to Mar 28, 1925 299,735**
Apr 13 to May 2, 1925 167,676
TOTAL 1,282,611***

*These are listed as No. 90
**Some numbers are partially illegible in teh records; estimated
*** This total may not include clear or clear tinted pieces (see Birmingham)

CD 106 Retooling Identification Guide